Published on Nov 21, 2018. 10 minute read.


This post details a presentation I gave at my local Manchester Web Meetup on 21st November 2018 at The Hut Group in Media City, Salford, UK.

Below are the accompanying notes I wrote that acted as a rough speaking guide, and may or may not have been spoken during the event itself.

Who am I?

  • Developer at RC, this is where I have learnt about frontend microservice architecture
  • I like to experiment with new ideas, and I make available what I can through my public GitHub repo
  • I have decided to start speaking at events like this one more often so that I can give back to the community that has given me so much over the years
  • If you do have any feedback or suggestions on how I can improve, please feel free to let me know. I’m most likely to respond if you email me.

Overview of tonight’s talk

  • Discuss what microservice architecture is and how the paradigm can be applied to the frontend
  • Discuss the details around the of the code, the tooling, the project structure etc
  • Hopefully learn enough to be able to go implement this pattern in our own repositories
  • We will touch on state management and how we tackled the issue of sharing state at RC

RC Screenshot 1

  • This is the website I work on for my day job, the replatformed Rental Cars website
  • This website has comprehensive back-end and front-end micro-service architecture
  • There are usually several microservices running on any one single page

RC Screenshot 2

For example, on this page there is a header and search box which are both front-end microservices

Buy my house screenshot 1

  • When I was planning this presentation I decided that I wanted to make some code available for you to go look at (RC is private)
  • The website isn’t much to look at, but all the practices we are going to talk about today are covered
  • I will give the link shortly
  • here are 3 front-end microservices on this page

Buy My House Screenshot 2

  • I have highlighted the 3 microservices

GitHub Repo Screenshot

  • There are 3 standalone repositories here, although there is no reason why they couldn’t live in a single repo (we will talk about this later)
  • Buy My House API - This was written in C# .NET Web API and exposes an endpoint which returns a list of properties that are currently available for sale.
  • Buy My House Gateway - Exposes a GraphQL endpoint which can be used to talk to Buy My House API microservice. This allows only a specific subset of data to be returned to the client, rather than EVERYTHING. We’ll discuss this reasoning later
  • Buy My House - The entire front-end, including all standalone front-end micro-services. This is a mono-repo. We will talk more about this later.

Title Slide

  • I want to define what I’m talking about when I say “Scale”

Scale slide

  • No not that kind of scale


  • This rectangle represents my project, my repository
  • Maintaining a project is easy when only one person is contributing to it
  • But now the company is doing well, so more people are hired and start contributing
  • More people get hired, pain points of everybody working on the same files start becoming a regular occurrence, such as merge conflicts and code being overwritten unintentionally
  • Now it’s chaos, and the stability of the project is undermined
  • The scalability I’m referring to is making your project robust enough to be able to withstand dozens or hundreds of contributors commiting code and making changes on a daily basis. This is where front-end microservice architecture comes in
  • Getting code changes out in a timely and safe manner is of the utmost importance


  • We can’t talk about scalability without touching on the impact to performance

What is micro-service architecture

  • Small, independent, isolated, single function modules with well defined interfaces and operations
  • There are usually performance benefits that accompany a microservice architecture
  • Apps can be scaled horizontally and vertically
  • Can be independently deployed
  • Can make continuous deployment and delivery possible
  • Less risk, because you usually deploy little and often
  • Falling back when things go wrong is easier for the same reason
  • What is micro-service architecture specifically on the front-end?


  • Forming many pieces of a page into a single page, usually orchestrated by an aggregator (page is built dynamically)
  • Ability to use different frameworks on the front-end
  • I want to expand on this point on the next slide

Buy my house screenshot

  • Every microservice on this page is written using React

Front-end diagram 1

  • If we take the previous screenshot and turn it into a diagram, we see in a simpler form that every microservice is written in React
  • As a side note, the React library is not included on the page 3 times, it is externalise from the bundles and loaded at the end of the body BEFORE any other microservices are loaded

Front-end diagram 2

  • There is no technical reason why every component couldn’t be written in a different framework
  • You probably don’t want to do this because you would have to include each framework/library on the page, which would add a lot of bloat
  • Where frontend microservice architecture really shines is where you want to transition from one framework to another, which in the fast pace world of front-end development is highly desirable


  • Back to performance, how is a typical front-end website built today?

A typical micro-service website today

  • The front end may make several requests to various backend microservices, both internal and external
  • At least some of these requests may be being made on page load or shortly after
  • Some requests may block the user from performing an action

Web Gateway slide 1 & 2

  • It is becoming increasingly common to introduce a gateway layer
  • Server side rendering of the front end
  • Good for SEO
  • Front-end may make a single request to the gateway and get back the exact data it needs to render, as a tool like GraphQL can go resolve data from all the endpoints and combined it into a single distilled response

GraphQL aside

  • I prefer to use GraphQL on the application gateway so that I don’t have a complex, in-flux tool like Apollo on the client. This will probably change at some point
  • I don’t want a chatty client making micro requests to microservices once the page has loaded (client side)
  • GraphQL lets me query several microservices at a time and return back to the client with a single cohesive response
  • On the application gateway, I server side render the React application and then rehydrate it client side, which is quicker and should result in better SEO

Source Control / Multi Repo

  • We are now in a Multi-repo environment. Every front end and back end microservice, as well as everything in between lives in its own repository
  • This can be hard to manage, adds complexity in places like CI/CD tools, reporting etc
  • Cognitively draining as you will typically have to constantly change windows/editors to find code/many changes to several repositories at once

Source Control / Mono Repo

  • Every microservice, every API, everything lives in one repo
  • This means there is a single source of truth, a single place to find code, track down bugs etc
  • Large companies like Google, Facebook and Twitter have monorepos
  • Babel has released tooling to help manage a monorepo, called Lerna
  • I thought the idea was ridiculous when I first heard about it a couple of years ago, but I’ve warmed up to it and now when starting a new project its something i seriously consider from the start

Why is Babel a monorepo?

  • I couldn’t resist not showing this wiki page from Babel’s GitHub repository
  • Juggling a multimodule project over multiple repos is like trying to teach a newborn baby how to ride a bike
  • Easier to verify that code is working as expect, and is consistent
  • Babel acknowledge that the code is more intimidating to newer developers/contributors
  • And you might be thinking that this is a dumb idea, but other big projects like React and Ember have been doing this forever

What does it look like in practice?

  • Every component is built in isolation, usually in a folder called packages
  • Every component can be individually published to a registry, such as NPM or your own private repository
  • In this project, we’re using a shell application that pulls in all its dependencies to build the page. The shell doesn’t add much business logic itself


  • Monorepos currently work best when built with Yarn & Lerna
  • Yarn is a package manager like NPM, but has some additional functionality
  • Primarily, Yarn workspaces allow node_modules to be hoisted to the root. A single yarn install will install the dependencies for every package
  • No need to go into each package and run npm install
  • I don’t think there is currently a comparable feature in NPM, but i wouldn’t bet against it appearing in the not so distant future
  • Lerna optimises the workflow around managing multi-package repositories with Git and NPM
  • Lerna was developed by Babel, and is being used by many large companies
  • Lerna makes it easier to publish packages to your registry of choice
  • Lerna manages the version numbers, either independently or fixed
  • Lerna detects dependent packages and publishes them as well
  • Potential pain point. When using Lerna, everything must be a package or not everything will work as you expect

Yarn & Lerna

  • If you’re considering migrating to a monorepo, you will probably want to consider switching to Yarn and implementing Lerna. Lerna is more painful when used with NPM.


  • Its all very well building components in isolation, but sooner or later you will probably want to share state between 2 or more components

The Martian

  • Your components can’t always live in isolation, sooner or later they are going to need to make contact with the outside world

SSR State Provider

  • To solve the problem at Rental Cars, we developed a wrapper around React Context API which had access to a global variable
  • Global when server side rendered, window when client side rendered
  • A consumer exposed an UpdateState function, which notified all other services on the page that global state had changed
  • This global state is agnostic of any framework
  • When state changes, React uses its Virtual DOM diffing to figure out if a re-render is necessary. We tested this comprehensively with 4 services running on a page doing several complex operations, and noted no significant decline in performance
  • This approach was chosen because of the current stigma around using a Flux type library like Redux

Microservice Envy

  • Whilst researching this presentation, I came across a point on the Thoughtworks TechRadar, which was titled Microservice Envy
  • Just because everybody else is creating microservices, doesn’t mean you should as well
  • Assess the pros and cons, decide if this approach is right for your project


  • Pro - Smaller modules are faster to release
  • Pro - Can be scaled independently, both horizontally and vertically
  • Pro - Easier to understand and easier to onboard new team members
  • Pro - Microservices can be reused in many places
  • Pro - Less to roll back when things go wrong
  • Pro - Ability to change and evolve without breaking dependent services, as long as the contract is maintained


  • Con - Increased devops, monitoring, delivery workflow must be automated using a pipeline, tools like Graphite and Grafana become essential
  • Con - Achieving team independence requires the team to have all skills within itself.
  • Con - Increased configuration. Git repo, CI/CD pipeline
  • Con - More throughput, although request will be smaller


  • Break your front end into smaller pieces, which can be independently iterated, deployed and managed
  • An intermediate service called a Web Gateway may help reduce chatter and improve performance
  • Putting all your components/services into a single repo, called a Monorepo, may make developing easier
  • A general purpose solution for sharing state is required


Jon Preece

About the author

Jon Preece is a professional front-end development specialist.

For over a decade, Jon has worked for some of the biggest and best UK based companies, on a wide range of products. Get in touch via Twitter.